flying tiger airlines vietnam


A FLY-IN COMMUNITY! In 1969, during the Vietnam War, a 21-year-old Seattle woman saw a job ad for a California cargo airline called the Flying Tiger Line that had a large presence in San Francisco. The aircraft that disappeared was around five years old. When a positive story about the Vietnam experience shows up it helps the healing that many of us need. At its peak, the Tigers employed approximately 251 flight attendants and carried up to a record 594 passengers and crew on its MAC all-coach passenger flights. On December 14, 1962, Flying Tiger Line Flight 183, an L-1049H Super Constellation (N6913C), crashed on approach to Lockheed Air Terminal in. Marilyn Breen was 24 when a girlfriend called her from Japan, bragging that she had gotten a job with a different charter airline and was now sitting in Tokyo having her nails done for $1.50. After an almost three hour delay, the airplane is back in the air and en-route to our final destination Vietnam. She very quickly wrote down something and gave it to me. The company said it needed flight attendants. Flying Tiger Line, also known as Flying Tigers, was the first scheduled cargo airline in the United States and a major military charter operator during the Cold War era for both cargo and personnel (the latter with leased aircraft). As the company grew and matured, founder and CEO Robert Prescott did also, both in his younger days as an AVG pilot and later in the role of President of the Flying Tiger Line. The Los Angeles headquarters operation included its own engine shop and jet maintenance business. On March 6, 1967, Flying Tigers first DC8-63F aircraft arrived. for the first time, when I read this article, I remembered the cheer that went up spontaneously when we pulled up to about 10,000 feet and realized we were safety out of rocket/mortar danger and headed for home. The training had little to do with hospitality, focusing instead on emergency procedures, like how to ditch a plane after a crash or what to do if the plane drew gunfire. I spent one year there and flew 15 missions in Vietnam, 8 north and 7 south. Today. The aircraft operating the flight was a Lockheed L-1049H Super Constellation registered as N6921C. Owing to the complex geopolitical circumstances of the mid to late 20th century, it was also involved in military charters, flying both cargo and troops to conflict zones. An aspect of nowhere, A mysterious gang, The Black Snake Gang, is rising throughout the world. And many didnt know what to think, caught between respect for the military and horror over the fates of the boys on their flights. The new Flying Tiger airline had its own military role; carrying cargo and troops back and forth to the war in Vietnam. Two examples were thoroughbred racehorses and show animals from Stansted, England to the Melbourne Cup, as well as breeding stock cattle (milk supply) to nations such as Japan and Thailand. In 1965, Flying Tiger Line began operating jet aircraft when on September, 27, the first (as N322F) of four Boeing 707 was delivered. They played cards with the guys, laughed with them. Afraid that at any moment a rocket or mortor could could take the jet down. On March 3, 1986, operations commenced in the new Columbus, Ohio Hub at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. 2023 CherriesWriter - Vietnam War website. According to the Aviation Safety Network, it first flew in 1957, and had amassed a total of 17,224 hours. That motto lasted until the airline was taken over by Federal Express in the late 1980's. They were long, boisterous flights full of bravado and joking the men going off to war were trying to psych themselves up. Flying Tiger Line flight 739 was a multi-leg charter service that originated at Travis Air Force Base in the US state of California. The C-46s flew the domestic operation while the C-54s remained in overseas charter service. Ardith, I know we GIs werent always gentlemen, but thank you so very much for all that you and your sister attendants did for us on our flights too and from that hell hole of a war in SAE. These women allayed the fears of soldiers heading to war and offered support and reassurance to those headed home. Web346 views 9 months ago. Freedom Bird. My most vivid memory is of the landing approach into Bien Hoa Airport. My tours were 67 to 68 and 68 to 69, My second tour i was stationed in Saigon , my unit had a small crew break room where the transit crews rested between flights. The decent angle brought the entire plane to silence while they considered the reason for that radical decent. I know the feelings, having done the flights in 68 & 70. changed me for the better many moons ago. In quieter moments, men cracked: a lieutenant crying softly in his seat, admitting that his wife had just given birth to a baby he might never see again; a young mans hand shaking as he reached for a cup of milk. If I remember correctly I went over on Continental and came back on United. The return to the States from RVN was like being in a decompression chamber. These ladies were great listeners and very supportive. However, despite an eight-day search covering hundreds of thousands of square miles of the Pacific Ocean, no trace of the aircraft or its 107 occupants could ever be found. I salute you all ladies!! We relied on each other and the soldiers to manage. These women allayed the fears of soldiers heading to war and offered support and reassurance to those headed home. She laughed. Theyd usually start at Travis Air Force Base outside of San Francisco or McChord Field in Washington, picking up more than 200 fresh-faced, uniformed servicemen from the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines. The airline was bought by Federal Express in 1988. Jason Fagone is a San Francisco Chronicle staff writer. They operated a recording company subsidiary, Happy Tiger Records, from 1969 to 1971. They were cordial but standoffish. I for one of many of us flew Tiger Airlines going and coming. Flying Tiger history began during World War II when the original aircrafts were small fighter planes. Ten former AVG pilots, after returning to the United States in 1945, formed the Flying Tiger Line established on 24 June 1945 as National Freight Service known under the name of National Skyway Freight using a small fleet of 14 Budd Conestoga freighters purchased as war surplus from the United States Navy. Large crew bases were situated at Los Angeles, New York City and Lockbourne, Ohio (Rickenbacker International Airport). Wheels up lots of cheering and hope. They wanted to cry but stifled the impulse. Sometimes, when the wheels pulled up on takeoff, the whole plane would burst out in yells and clapping. The Flying Tiger Line founder, Robert (Bob) W. Prescott and other young pilots joined General Claire Chennault and the famed Flying Tigers in China during WWII. However, Kadena was not able to resupply the galley but the crew got a lot of junk food to hold us over till we got to Tokyo where we were off-loaded again and the plane was serviced. The flight attendants, although very young themselves, couldnt believe how young the troops were just 17 and 18 in some cases. On this last leg, the passengers are much more somber and thinking ahead to their landing in the war zone. We all knew that some going would not make it back alive. After 1970, scheduled commercial service, much of which consisted of Asian imports, rapidly overtook military related contracts as the company's primary source of income. The companys participation in the Peruvian Airlift aided earthquake victims in the quake devastated country. This article is an important read. Enjoyed the article, although my trip to Nam was aboard a C130 with alternating engines working. After all the things i remember about my viet nam year , i never remembered about the flight to or from . In June 1946, the Budd Conestogas were replaced by C-47s. Thanks for the wonderful article. On March 6, 1967, Flying Tigers first DC8-63F aircraft arrived. Mr. Fagones article is very touching and reminds us that many more people than just we former service men and women are veterans of the Vietnam War. Based in Norwich, UK. With four Rolls Royce engines that developed 5,700 horsepower, it cruised at 375 miles per hour, carrying up to 60,000 pounds of cargo over a range of 3,000 miles. On this last leg, the passengers are much more somber and thinking ahead to their landing in the war zone. each of us inside were scared because for the first time non of us were wearing helmets, flack jackets, no weapons or ammo. Early in 1961, the first of the Canadair CL-44 all-cargo aircraft joined the flying Tiger Fleet. Expansion The flight attendants were as depicted in this article, both going and coming home. With only six thousand employees around the world, the Flying Tiger Line carried cargo and people to all corners of the planet. The aircraft was operating a MATS charter flight from Gander to Frankfurt. She learned then that the Flying Tiger Line, also known as Flying Tigers, specialized in troop transports. Flying Tigers was a mechanism of the war she opposed. Ardith (Vignati) Willner Operated primarily on transpacific military contract routes, the planes carried 73,000 pounds of freight at 550 miles per hour over a 3,000 range. Established at the end of the Second World War, Flying Tiger Line made history as the first US-based scheduled cargo-carrying airline. Many of the women continued to fly, either with Tigers or other airlines; more than a few married Tigers pilots and started families. McCord was doing maintenance on the runway. Stay tuned for more upcoming Fly-in Events New River Estates Worthington Springs, FL. Never again! Like you were going to hang around. Each of the awesome giants flies more than 200,000 pounds of cargo at 575 miles per hour over a 3,500-mile range. The aircraft carried additional fuel in two additional tanks installed in the main cabin.[12]. It flew at 200 miles per hour, carried 13,000 pounds of cargo and had a range of 900 miles. Flying Tigers already had terminals at San Francisco, Burbank, San Diego, Chicago, Cleveland and Newark. Very nice ,brings back feeling that are mostly good ones.Thank you ladies.I flew into DANANG twice the 2nd fight was with the Flying Tigars and a year later they flew me back to the states. Put on the clothing and shoes that I had been wearing befor going to war. In 1964, the company graduated its first class of flight attendants. Wonderful memories. I sat on the left side isle with a window seat just to the rear edge of the left wing. Country. On August 7, 1989, Federal Express merged Flying Tigers into its operations. These aircraft had the powerful "Q" (Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7Q) engines and heavy landing gear and could simultaneously carry both 250,000 pounds (110,000kg) of fuel and 250,000 pounds (110,000kg) of cargo loaded through both the nose door and the side door at the same time. I know that I should have written to her while I was in Vietnam, but like things go I had more important thoughts on my mind such as surviving and looking out for my men. I wouldnt trade the experience for a million dollars, stated Julie Kane, a flight attendant for Seaboard World Airlines. Flying at 210 miles per hour, the C-54 carried 20,000 pounds of cargo over a 2,000 -- mile range. I now have a new group of Vietnam vets to admire and respect. So they tried to keep it light. Eleven members of the AVE joined Prescott and formed the National Skyways Freight Corp. The first all-cargo airline in the country was born on June 25, 1945, based in a two-car garage in Long Beach, California and flying Budd Conestogas. I only just sat there, silently , the flight home to Fort Lewis. A keen amateur photographer, he also recently reached the milestone of flying his 100th sector as a passenger. WebThe Flying Tigers Boeing 707 POLECAT established speed and distance records on its pole-to-pole flight around the world. I also n=mourned those I had lost there who could not return alive but were shipped home to grief stricken families. WebThe Flying Tiger Line Incorporated. Great Read, I was a 26 year old man when I went to that war, I remember not sleeping on the flying tiger flight back home, and the stewardess, sat and talked to me as everyone else was sleeping, I thought the stewardess was a nice person that was concerned about my not sleeping and ask why. The first Douglas DC-8-63F registered as N779FT was delivered to the airline on June 26, 1968 and the other eighteen followed until 1972.[6]. In the years during and after World War II, military veterans were given special preference to purchase or lease government surplus aircraft. That was always the fun part, to take them out of there, remembered Gael Okicich, who flew with Tigers for 25 years. Thank you all. What aviation news will you check out next? Flying around the world over the North and South Poles, the Pole Cat set eight speed and distance records. Few understood the emotional demands they would face. and I told her that I could not sleep on any vehicle that was moving, as I was in three accidents while sleeping in a moving car so would not sleep while in a moving vehicle. We were goin up and up , the war down below, falling away now far behind us. We were eventually invited to leave the club and told to not come back Welcome Home from the USAF in Kadena. 7 Aug 1989. WebFind many great new & used options and get the best deals for FLYING TIGERS Douglas DC-8 -Aviation Postcard Airlines-WGA-927 at the best online prices at eBay! On November 2, 1979, the company received its first Boeing 747-200 freighter. The big, glamorous airline back then was Pan Am. The estimated duration of its westbound flight to the Philippines was reportedly around eight hours, although the aircraft had enough fuel onboard to fly for another hour on top of that. We began to realize OK, these guys are going off to die, Breen recalled. WebFlying Tiger: With Ron Ng, Lee Pace, Jamie B. Not sure if the change in mood was due to smoked joints and beer, but it sure didnt hurt any. Flying Tigers continued to fly military troops and cargo into Vietnam during the war years. Flew over on Military Transport (think it was a 141) The flight was a complete 3 stooges movie MATS had trouble w/plane. And there were parties every single day and every single night, Foster remembered. C-47-Flying Tiger relied heavily on the Douglas C-47, the cargo version of the famed DC-3. When you went to school for Pan Am, they showed you how to do your makeup and your hair. Also in 1962, the company initiated the first coordinated combination of sea and air transportation; later to become known as SeaTiger. United States. Flying Tigers received the All-Cargo Route #163 across the Pacific into Asia. Marine leaving from Da Nang Jan 31, 1971 to Okinawa Japan, 3 days later back to the World by way of Alaska to Nortin AFB. Was processed out of the Army at Fort Lewis, got a military standby flight for$11. [5] For the next four years, Flying Tiger Line carried air freight on contract throughout the U.S. and, as the airline expanded, carrying supplies to U.S. troops under Gen. Douglas MacArthur during the occupation of Japan.[5]. But nothing could have prepared her for what it was like to be a flight attendant at Flying Tigers during the golden era of aviation a job so fabulous and exciting on the one hand and emotionally brutal on the other that it transformed the lives of hundreds of young women like her who were hired during the war, forcing them to confront the realities of Vietnam in ways they never expected, and bonding them to each other for decades to come. Its ultimate destination was the Vietnamese city of Saigon, to which it was transporting 96 soldiers. It was important to stay upbeat, to act like every one of the men was coming home. I believe it helped to constantly stay connected with the world and the amazing young ladies that always had a smile and a kind word for the troops regardless of rank or service branch. Flying Tigers continued to fly military troops and cargo into Vietnam during the war years. In April of 75, with the collapse of the South Vietnamese government, Flying Tigers evacuated its own personnel and other refugees from Saigon. Chambers, Andy Gatenby. Remember the illumination flares as we were coming in on final as the sun had not come up yet. I went and returned on a Flying Tiger plane and remember very well the sensitive and kind treatment from the stewardesses both directions. The aircraft was operating a Military Air Transport Service (MATS) cargo flight from Travis AFB to Kadena Air Base. From Tokyo we flew to Anchorage where we were grounded another 18 to 20 hours due to a snow storm and for some reason, Anchorage did not have deicing capability. (it was the only one on the tarmac) Leaving Bien Hoa at 9:00 P.M on June 25th 1969 and arriving in Oakland CA on June 25th at 9:30 P.M. Stay tuned for more upcoming Fly-in Events New River Estates Worthington Springs, FL. Leslie Pfeifer served aboard Flying Tiger Line from 1967 to 1970, making 75 return flights to South Vietnam. Thank you so much angels. The Stewardess came back after about 10-15 minutes and asked me Do you mind if I ask you a personal question? I told her No, not really.. In 1962, the Vietnam War was far from over. Landed in Saigon. Flying Tiger history began during World War II when the original aircrafts were small fighter planes. Flying Tiger Line Flight 739 was a Lockheed Super Constellation aircraft, which is pictured here. A FLY-IN COMMUNITY! I have just relived a very important part of my young life, thru these articles and the loving responses. Flying Tigers received the All-Cargo Route #163 across the Pacific into Asia. On July 31, 1982, Flying Tigers began regularly scheduled jetfreighter service between the United States and Sao Paulo, Brazil, to become the only all-cargo carrier connecting South America with a service network that stretched thought out Asia, Europe and North America. I remember we had trouble on departure from Travis and then landed at Hickham and had to spend the night awaiting a replacement aircraft. I just stood there in my bedroom looking out the window for a very long time,saying to myself Did that really happen??? This was a great story. I was old as dirt to them.. Meanwhile, the flight attendants were becoming like a family. She had many stories. I remember well my Flying Tiger trips. On November 9, 1977, President Carter signed into law the legislation which deregulated airfreight in the U.S. On March 3, 1978, one month after Flying Tigers was named the largest airfreight carrier in the free world, the airlines founder, Robert W. Prescott, died. Coming home was great while everyone mentions the cheering on wheels up on departure no one mentions the deafening silence as the aircraft started down the runway on departure until wheels up Until now, I mostly ignored the efforts of these people (especially the attendants they saw, heard & felt all of it). During the Vietnam years the Flying Tiger Line also worked overtime for the US Postal Service. Remember the pungent fish smell and heat as we deplaned. Sources:, Aviation Safety Network, The Free Lance-Star. United States. And welcome home. A mysterious gang, The Black Snake Gang, is rising throughout the world. Thank you for taking care of us. I went to Nam not on a Flying Tiger plane, and made it back home in one piece with no PTSD, only a parasite from the veggies. A true airfreighted with a unique swing-tail design, the CL-44 permitted the straight-in loading of freight no other plane could carry. On March 6, 1967, Flying Tigers first DC8-63F aircraft arrived. a light greenish blue Specifically equipped with weather monitoring equipment and scientific instrumentation, one 707 (Aircraft N322FT), gained fame as the "Pole Cat." Not one of us said a word in the dark as we watched the plane sitting there with jet engines idling. Their service to our military was so much more than just being a flight attendant on their way over or coming home. I remember the flights to and from, but what really sticks in my mind was the blast of hot, humid air that swept through the plane when they opened the doors. These were to take place in Honolulu, Wake Island, Guam, and the Philippines (Clark Air Base). WebThe Flying Tigers Boeing 707 POLECAT established speed and distance records on its pole-to-pole flight around the world. It surpassed Pan American World Airways in 1980 as the world's largest air cargo carrier after acquiring its rival cargo airline Seaboard World Airlines on 1 October 1980. The Swingtails were so nicknamed because their tails literally swung away from the aircraft for loading. I didnt use Flying Tigers going to and from my two tours in Vietnam, but I DID fly with them in 1963 going home from a two-year stint in Korea. December 31st, 1968 at the age of 20 we flew from Travis AFB to Anchorage Alaska. After a dangerous heist of a mysterious device from the FBI, the HKPD assigns Ko Ka Chun, to save Hong Kong from the imminent threat from the Black Snake Gang. Having climbed to a cruising altitude of 18,000 feet, the aircraft reported its position as being 1340N 1400E just under an hour and a half into the flight. Web978 views 8 months ago Andee Wright served as a flight attendant with Flying Tiger Line from 1967 to 1978. [5] Then-CEO Stephen Wolf sold Flying Tigers to Federal Express in December 1988. Hard to not have an emotional moment while reading. This historic symbol was moved from Ellis Island in New York Harbor to Los Angeles for the Annual Rose Parade in Pasadena on January 1, 1985. Not sure if the change in mood was due to smoked joints and beer, but it sure didnt hurt any. Leslie Pfeifer served aboard Flying Tiger Line from 1967 to 1970, making 75 return flights to South Vietnam. a version of Purgatory, These women allayed the fears of soldiers heading to war and offered support and reassurance to those headed home. Thank you ladies. We all wanted to get home, but wondered if this old crate could get us there. If not for you, the World would be much worse off. Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When TheyReturned? WebAir America was an American passenger and cargo airline established in 1946 and covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1950 to 1976. Her sentiments are echoed by Judy Meyer, who flew for United Air Lines, It was some of the best flying I ever did. Although these women were an integral part of the Vietnam War experience, their contributions are largely unknown outside of the veteran community. She told me that there were more books in the back of the plane. From the beginning, Prescott had a vision for the company: "We're unique, so let's not imitate. Really hurt thinking about that after I was out in the field for a couple of weeks on c-rations. (LogOut/ I went over in February 1970. Such as, I didnt know if I was going to make it back and not wanting to think about that. Aircraft loaders had earlier refused to work at the extreme 30 feet (9m) height necessary for loading freight on the upper deck, so the "supernumerary area" or "hump" was configured with 19 first class seats instead which were used to transport livestock handlers, charter agents and mechanics as well as dead-heading pilots and flight attendants. Ceased operations. Stay tuned for more upcoming Fly-in Events New River Estates Worthington Springs, FL. Ceased operations. A little over an hour later, it was expected to reach the coordinates of 140N 1350E. I know there were bad times but your article brought back memories I forgot I had. By the mid-1980s, Flying Tigers operated scheduled cargo service to six continents and served 58 countries. Change). In 1974, the airline took delivery of its first Boeing 747. Travel the world, the ad said. Photo: The aircraft departed from Andersen AFB in Guam before disappearing over the Western Pacific Ocean. Many of these people became valuable members of the Flying Tigers family. The other airlines that that had the contracts to take service men to that war zone in South East Asia was Seaboard World Air lines it was rumored to be own by lady bird Johnson as she was on the Board of directors of Braniff International air ways and that they and Tiger Airlines got those troop movement contracts back in the day; The old boy network was in bed with the men sitting in the white house: Flying Tiger 707 (March 68) from Travis to Anchorage (refuel), on to Okinawa (refuel), and finally to Bien Hoa. Flew out going from Ft. Lewis, Washington 1970, came home through Oakland Par 8th, 1971. Travel the world, the ad said. I was a Flying Tiger Flight Attendant for 5 years, and those many experiences flying into Tan Son Nhut. I recall the flight I took into Vietnam and even more than the flight I took home. Flying Tigers also made livestock carriers for airplanes, some comparable in external size and shape to the standard AMJ container used in the FedEx flight operations. Outstanding article! Despite the intensity of the operations, many flight attendants found the military contract flights rewarding and continued to serve on them for years. Despite her personal beliefs, Foster reasoned that nobody needed better care than men heading to a war or coming back from one, and she decided to sign on. Thanks so much to all the people that participated in this adventure and thanks for helping us all get there and back. Founded in 1945 by a group of pilots who had flown in World War II, Flying Tigers was Americas first major cargo airline, a seat-of-the-pants operation that hauled freight on Canadian turboprop planes. Email:jason.fagone@sfchronicle.comTwitter:@jfagone, Link to the actual article: My return flight was one of those that cheered as we lifted off. WebAs Flying Tiger Line flight attendant Andee Wright recalled, There was no special training by the airlines or the military about how to handle it. Thats funny. On September 23, 1962, Flying Tiger Line Flight 923, an L-1049H Super Constellation (N6923C), ditched in the North Atlantic after three engines failed, killing 28 of 76 on board. Perhaps, I dont remember them because they were doing such a great job of quietly supporting each of us, letting us deal with our personal feelings in our own way. To kill time many of us went to the Officers Club, with the flight attendants in tow, and proceeded to party. Ceased operations. Because they were young and energetic, they could work a 5-hour flight from Japan to Vietnam, spend an hour on the ground, turn around and fly 5 hours back to Japan, then take a quick shower and then go out dancing at a go-go club. While in Alaska stopping and refueling I was only 1/2 way through a mountain of pancakes, sausage and eggs smothered with Maple syrup when they announce for all out bound corpsmen to report immediately for departure. Not Flying Tigers but nevertheless an unforgettable flight. Just reading this article brings tears to my eyes. I was on those flights, twice over and back although on other carriers. WebAir America was an American passenger and cargo airline established in 1946 and covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1950 to 1976. There was more to this exciting excursion. What's The Latest With Delta's Ex-LATAM Airbus A350s? On March 6, 1967, Flying Tigers first DC8-63F aircraft arrived. We crossed over the international dateline and it became the 2nd of January. Imitation lets you catch up to the guy ahead, but never lets you pass." And this aricle brought back many memories, both sad & scared, and delighted and full of joy! WebAir America was an American passenger and cargo airline established in 1946 and covertly owned and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1950 to 1976. In April of 1949, after a four-year battle, the company was awarded CAB (Civil Aeronautics Board now FAA) certification and established the FIRST ALL-CARGO Scheduled Route 100 from Los Angeles to Boston with points in between. This allowed for more extensive geographic capability and cargo capacity. No lights on the plane in the dark. On March 21, 1966, Flying Tiger Line Flight 6303, a, On December 24, 1966, a Flying Tiger Line Canadair CL-44 (N228SW), On February 15, 1979, Flying Tiger Line Flight 74, a. We relied on each other and the soldiers to manage.. (LogOut/ After spending 1968 with 3RD MARDIV, came home aboard a luxurious Braniff 707. From there the plane, often a stretch DC-8, would fly west to Anchorage, then to Japan, then to the Philippines or Vietnam, dropping the troops off at military bases. The Boeing 707 remained in the fleet only few years, and later sold, upon arrival of the higher-payload Douglas DC-8, the largest civilian airliner until the Boeing 747 entered service. And after the fall of Saigon in 1975, when the war ended, they remained connected. Carrying 50% more cargo than the DC-4 and carrying it 70 miles per hour faster, the company's gross revenues quickly reached the $25-million mark in 1953. At 11:15PM June 29, 1968 I left Bien Hoa airport on a Trans International DC-10. Many flight attendants struggled at first to contain their own emotions. One day in Vietnam, waiting on the tarmac before a homeward-bound flight, she saw men loading body bags into the belly of the plane. As in Korea, these flights carried both cargo as well as military personnel and their dependents. On October 25, 1983, Flying Tiger Line Flight 2468, a Douglas DC-8 (N797FT), ran off the runway at NAS Norfolk due to crew and ATC errors; all five on board survived; the aircraft was substantially damaged but was repaired and returned to service. In addition to the emotional impact, the flight attendants risked physical harm while flying to military bases in an active combat zone. In 1984 the DC-8-63s were phased out as a result of Federal noise regulations that went into effect that year. In the Vietnam airlift, Flying Tigers provided strategic flights from the US to numerous military bases throughout the Pacific and Southeast Asia geographic region.

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